An annotated bibliography showing 51 continuous centuries that recognize “democracy”’s definitional, conceptual, and practiced pluralism

Published: 8 January 2024| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/6nf4pcydtw.1


510 Years of acknowledgements, from multilinguistic literature, demonstrating that “democracy” means more than one thing and has been practiced in more than one place


Steps to reproduce

Follow the links to each source, translate as necessary, look for admissions of difference in theory and practice for "democracy" in, at least, two different locations or time periods, then organize these admissions decade by decade. This work can also be done by utilizing numerous digital and physical archives of texts bearing the words "democracy", "democracia", "democratia", etc, and following one's own theory for detecting "democracy's" diverse meanings in the texts one ends up selecting. For example, one could look for monist definitions of "democracy" across the last 500 years (or which there are many!) and then demonstrating the differences between these admissions, perhaps even compiling them into families of resemblance and showing change in meaning over time, space, context, etc.


University of Canberra


Faculty of Business, Government & Law


Linguistics, Comparative Politics, Political Theory, Democratization, Democracy, Historical Analysis, Comparative Linguistics